5C Model

After reading the Friss and Gelting (2004) paper it was clear for me that design is a process aimed to find problems and to produce knowledge. This knowledge could be produced about existing situations and future situations, and could be produced both by physical experience or by mental processing.

The 5C Model presented in Friss and Gelting’s paper, consists of 5 stages as shown in the following image:


Figure 1: Image of 5C model (Friss, 2004)

However, although I find this image very useful, I see it a bit differently, which is why I reorganized it (see below). I believe that to be able to create something that is innovative enough, the stage of creation should be englobing all of the other phases. Also, something I found very interesting about the reading is how the different methods of reasoning are reflected throughout the different stages. The author mentions 3 ways of reasoning or drawing conclusions:

  1. Deductive: In this type of reasoning the conclusions tend to be guaranteed, it is based on logic and it covers first the general aspects and then the specific ones. The easy way to think about this is as maths equations
  2. Inductive: Normally, it begins by experiences and observations, its a theory, therefore it grows from the specific to the general aspects and the conclusions could be somewhat subjective and thus merely likely.
  3. Abductive: This normally happens when there is an incomplete set of information that leads to certain conclusions, therefore it is not well supported and it can’t be completely proven.

Although it is explained that the inductive method is more related to the collection aspect, the deductive reasoning to the comprehension phase and the abductive method to the conceptualization, it is clear that the creation aspect of design happens when there is a symbiosis all of these phases and methods to actually create something that solves a problem and satisfies the consumer.


Figure 2: Re-adaptation. Information taken from 5C Model(Friss, 2004)


Friss S. and Gelting A. (2004) The 5C Model


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